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Yoma 70a - seder avodah

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1 Yoma 70a - seder avodah on Sun Aug 24, 2014 6:41 pm

Some thoughts on seder avodah on Yom Kippur. Please help me with comments on it.

וחמש עבודות הן: תמיד של שחר בבגדי זהב, עבודת היום בבגדי לבן, אילו ואיל העם בבגדי זהב, כף ומחתה בבגדי לבן, תמיד של בין הערבים בבגדי זהב.
It seems clear from this beraisa that the tamid shel bein ha’arbayim is in the fifth tevilah. And this is how Rashi (and Tos 71a d”h nichnas) learn on daf 70a, that both tanaim agree on this.

רבי עקיבא אומר: עם תמיד של שחר היו קרבין, ופר העולה ושעיר הנעשה בחוץ היו קרבין עם תמיד של בין הערבים. קדש ידיו ורגליו ופשט, וירד וטבל, ועלה ונסתפג, הביאו לו בגדי לבן ולבש, וקדש ידיו ורגליו, נכנס להוציא את הכף ואת המחתה. קדש ידיו ורגליו, ופשט וירד וטבל, עלה ונסתפג, הביאו לו בגדי זהב ולבש וקדש ידיו ורגליו, ונכנס להקטיר קטורת של בין הערבים, ולהטיב את הנרות. וקדש ידיו ורגליו ופשט, הביאו לו בגדי עצמו ולבש. ומלוין אותו עד ביתו...
The simple reading seems to say that the tamid shel bein ha’arbayim is before the fourth tevilah. But Rashi says on the mishnah,

ופר העולה ־ נמי דמוסף, עם תמיד של בין הערבים בטבילה חמישית
Then Tosefos d”h nichnas (printed on 70a) has to explain that the tamid shel bein ha’arbayim is not mentioned in the fifth tevilah because it had already been mentioned earlier.
Also in the beraisa there with Rabbi Akiva (70b)

ואחר כך אילו ואיל העם, ואחר כך אימורי חטאת, ואחר כך תמיד של בין הערבים
Again Rashi has to say

ואחר כך אילו ואיל העם ואחר כך אימורי חטאת ־ כל אלו בטבילה שלישית. ואחר כך תמיד של בין הערבים ־ בטבילה חמישית

But the Rambam says the simpler p’shat for the later gemara, that the tamid shel bein ha’arbayim was brought according to R’ Akiva in the third tevilah. I think that the earlier gemara must be then according to R’ Eliezer on 70a:

רבי אליעזר אומר: יצא ועשה אילו ואיל העם ואימורי חטאת, אבל פר העולה ושבעת כבשים ושעיר הנעשה בחוץ עם תמיד של בין הערבים.
“He went out [from kodesh kodoshim] and did his ram and the nation’s ram, and the emurim of the chatas. But the par ha’olah, the seven lambs and the se’ir brought outside were [done] with the tamid shel bein ha’arbayim.” Since the rams etc. were clearly in the third tevilah, he must be saying that the rest were in the fifth.
Note that Rabbeinu Chananel has a girsa in R' Eliezer that omits the word "aval", implying that all the korbonos were in the same seder (like the Rambam). And see Tos. d"h d'tana who asks on that girsa assuming that the tamid shel bein ha'arbayim is in the fifth tevilah: if so, the beraisa is no clearer than the mishnah - how do we know which stages were in the third tevilah and which in the fifth. But according to the Rambam it would be good - they would all be in the third.

The Ramban on Chumash brings a Yerushalmi that learns like the Rambam. I am surprised that the Kesef Mishnah did not comment on this in the Rambam at all.

I noticed that the piyut on Yom Kippur for Nusach Ashkenaz follows Rashi: the tamid shel bein ha’arbayim is in the fifth tevilah. I emailed Artscroll that they apparently have a mistake in translation there; “ותימר” must refer to the ketores, not to burning the tamid, as it is not otherwise mentioned and everyone agrees that it was done in the fifth tevilah.

The Gra has a very famous shitah about all this, also brought in the Meshech Chachma in Acharei Mos, and in notes at the end of the Chochmas Adam. He brings from a Midrash that Aharon was an exception to the usual rules, and he was allowed to do the “Yom Kippur” avodah any time he wanted. Only thing is,  for that there isn’t a הלמ"מ that there are five tevilos, and the בגדי לבן are only worn once in the middle stage; the kaf and machtah are taken out after the se’ir hamistaleach is sent. That explains why “in the whole section, verses are in order, except for this one [hotza’as kaf umachtah]”: in the case of Aharon the rest of the year, all the posukim are indeed in proper order. First all the korbonos in Acharei Mos, which is tevilah 2, continuing into tevilah 3 with ay’lo and ayl ha’am (which is the only one of the musafim brought, and the only one mentioned here), and then emurim from the chatas, and finally the tamid shel bein ha’arbayim, ketores, and neiros. On Yom Kippur itself the hotza’as kaf umachtah moves to after the musafim, or (according to the Rambam) after the tamid shel bein ha’arbayim.
(It is worth noting that the Ramban addresses the verses being out of order in his peirush on Chumash. He says that it’s a pretty common thing for the Torah to finish up a subject (kaf umachtah) before it returns to the main narrative.)

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